A temporary, two-lane bridge has been launched and Route 36 in Fairfield has been reopened. Also, Route 108 through Smugglers’ Notch was was reopened Monday. At some point VTrans will will close the roadway for the winter.The Vermont Agency of Transportation had closed a section of Route 36 in Fairfield just east of Swamp Road due to a failed culvert. The road was expected to be closed into November until the Agency erected a temporary bridge, which subsequently went in ahead of schedule.The average daily traffic for this section of Route 36, which is located 1.7 miles east of the St. Albans/Fairfield town line, is about 2,700 vehicles per day. Source: VTrans. 10.22.2010
By Gonzalo Silva Infante/Diálogo April 24, 2018 In mid-March, the Peruvian Navy initiated the first of its 40 social assistance campaigns planned for 2018. The annual humanitarian program, carried out with Navy riverine vessels known as Itinerant Social Action Platforms (PIAS, in Spanish), began March 19th. For the first humanitarian campaign, five PIAS set off for rivers of the Peruvian jungle and the shores of Lake Titicaca to serve more than 200 communities and more than 70,000 people. River hospital crafts BAP Morona, BAP Corrientes, and BAP Curaray joined the effort. In 2018, the ships will provide medical assistance, health programs, nutrition, education, security, and environmental protection, as well as other services to more than 250,000 people in hard-to-reach rural communities in the Amazon jungle and Lake Titicaca. The goal is to promote development and inclusion in remote regions of Peru. “This activity combines three fundamental pillars of the Navy’s work,” said Admiral Gonzalo Ríos Polastri, general commander of the Navy. “[That includes] protection and social inclusion, contributing to development, and security in the broadest sense of the word.” Vital services PIAS cruise Lake Titicaca and rivers of the Amazon like floating hospitals and are equipped with gynecology clinics, labs, operating rooms, dental offices, imaging centers, and pharmacies. Each PIAS has a crew of 20 Navy troops—including doctors, health specialists, and service members—and 20 officials from various participating state organizations such as the National Commission for Development and Life without Drugs, the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations, the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status, and Comprehensive Health Insurance. The platforms provide preventive medicine courses and informational workshops on the prevention of drugs and domestic violence. The townspeople also benefit from government services and can participate in pension and education programs, as well as receive identity documents. “The civic actions of the Navy units were often the only government presence in riverine communities,” Adm. Ríos said. Despite all services carried out in the PIAS, obstetrics remain among the most valued. April 12th marked the first birth of the year aboard one of the Navy ships. Doctors on the PIAS Río Napo, which traveled along a tributary of the Napo River, in the Amazon, treated surgically and cared for the mother, a member of an indigenous community. The newborn received a complete medical exam, immunizations, and other necessary services. In 2017, eight babies were born aboard the PIAS. In addition to its medical and social support, the Navy carries out fundamental work for the development of the institution. Assistance campaigns aboard the PIAS also serve as training for participating service members. “It allows us to work on fostering a national identity. Of course, it’s a given that the campaign enhances the institution’s image. It gives us a presence in remote zones,” Commander Christian Salas Ormeño, chief of the division of Contribution to Development and Disaster Risk Management of the Navy General Staff, told Diálogo. “It also allows us to have personnel and ships enlisted and trained, to watch our borders, monitor our rivers, and develop within a naval and institutional framework. It positions us and gives us more management capacity with the government.” Major project The Navy’s humanitarian experience in the Peruvian Amazon dates back to the 19th century, when the first ships arrived to support rural populations. During the 1970s, the Navy incorporated the first hospital-ship units specialized in medical and dental care. “We realized that we were not changing the reality of these towns,” Cmdr. Salas said. “We then saw that we had to work out a proposal on another level that could really help.” In 2012, the Peruvian Navy’s Amazon Region and Fifth Naval Zone General Operations Command, based in Iquitos, developed a strategic concept of sustainable social action to respond to the needs of rural populations—the itinerant platform was born. The first PIAS campaign took place in 2013 in the Napo River basin. The PIAS Río Yavarí, in the process of being built, will join the five PIAS in service (Río Putumayo I, Río Putumayo II, Río Morona, Río Napo, and Lago Titicaca). The Navy announced the production of six additional PIAS to shore up the humanitarian assistance program. “The idea is for 10 to always be in operation,” Cmdr. Salas said. “We expect to have two in reserve so that 10 are always in operation.” Since 2013, the PIAS carried out 64 social action campaigns and brought assistance to more than 530,000 people. Including goals for 2018, the total number of campaigns will reach 104. “Navy personnel participate in the program with singular pride in serving our Amazon and its inhabitants,” Adm. Ríos concluded. “[And,] because we continue to carry the organized presence of the government, the anticipated completion of the planned platforms will allow us to continue moving forward in the projected coverage of all our rivers.”
Over 1 million people visited downtown Indianapolis during Super Bowl festivities in 2012.UpdateWed., Oct. 9The Super Bowl could be back in the Hoosier State. Indianapolis and New Orleans, the sites of the past two Super Bowls, and Minneapolis are the three finalists to host the NFL championship game in 2018The announcement was made yesterday and the final decision will come in May.Original PostTuesday, October 8 @ 7:40 a.m.The NFL will announce whether Indianapolis is a finalist to host the 2018 Super Bowl on Tuesday afternoon.An advisory committee narrows down the list of contenders, then the winner is selected by NFL owners during their spring meeting in May.Indianapolis is up against New Orleans, Tampa, Denver, Minneapolis, and possibly Miami.City leaders announced intentions to bid for another Super Bowl after the 2012 event brought over 1 million visitors to downtown Indianapolis.
Last season, under the direction of head coach Ron Graham, the Indians complied a record of 8-4 and made it all the way to the WPIAL AAAA semifinals where they lost to Gateway Nov. 14, at Gateway High School.“We are very excited with the senior leadership that we display this season with our four captains in Christian, Donald, Davis and Ifill,” said Graham. You can X and O all you want but that is a real plus whenever you can rely on the leaders of your team to lead you out on the field. We still have to fill in some gaps offensively, namely at tailback and quarterback where there is a three-way battle for that position. That is a concern of ours as we get into the start of the season. But hopefully that will be addressed and we can get some wins.”Penn Hills graduate and former Steelers running back Chuck Sanders made a donation of $55,000 this off season to renovate the weight room at the Bill Fralic Center, which is Penn Hills’ athletic training center.The Clairton Bears are out to defend their WPIAL championship in Class A. Offensively, they will be headed by running back and Division I prospect, Deontae Howard and Pitt recruit Kevin Weatherspoon.“Win one more game. That’s what we’re looking for,” Clairton coach Tom Nola said. “The players know they can’t be lazy. Our expectations are high.”Others teams around the WPIAL who expect to have successful campaigns are McKeesport, Gateway, Woodland Hills and Beaver Falls.Pittsburgh City LeagueThe Brashear Bulls are expected to return to prominence as they feature three offensive threats that are coming off of big years in 2008.Senior WR/DB Manasseh Garner is, according to scout.com, the 26th best recruit at his position in the nation. He has a multitude of Division-I offers including, Akron, Connecticut, Maryland, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, Toledo and Wisconsin. He is 6-2 and 200 pounds and is a threat on both sides of the ball. He is being recruited at receiver, defensive back, linebacker or halfback.Others returning are running back Bruce Patterson and quarterback Henri Chatman as seniors to make it a three-peat as champions of the Pittsburgh City League.“Last year is over. They’ve got to prove they are going to be in a position to do it again,” said Brashear head coach Rick Murphy. “We’ve got a level of success that we’re trying to uphold, and they set the bar really high and push each other on the field.”—According to comments made on WTAE, high school playbook.Last season, this offense was high-powered. Chatman facilitated the offensive scheme, completing at least 58 percent of his passes for 1,624 yards and 18 touchdowns. He also rushed for six more scores. Patterson rushed for 1,130 yards on 162 carries and 14 touchdowns, as he looks to finish out his high school football career with a division-1 offer.Garner, however has proven the biggest threat. He was the team’s leading receiver last season with 50 receptions, 702 yards and seven touchdowns. He also had the team lead with 84 tackles and recorded six sacks and three interceptions.“As a football player there’s just so many things he can do,” Murphy said. “He’s probably our top offensive weapon. Our offensive coordinator is always coming up with some idea to get the ball in his hands.” SENIOR LEADERSHIP—Penn Hills captains Myles Davis, No. 6; Cullen Christian, No. 24; Aaron Donald, No. 59; and Brandon Ifill, No. 1, with head coach Ron Graham. They feature a star-studded defense that is led by four-star recruit Cullen Christian—a 6-1, 180-pound senior corner who currently has seven strong offers to Division I programs. These schools include Michigan, Maryland, Pittsburgh, UCLA, West Virginia, Illinois and North Carolina. Others who highlight Penn Hills’ star power are middle linebacker Myles Davis (who’s committed to Syracuse), safety Brandon Ifill (recruited by seven D-1 programs), and Aaron Donald, the 6-1, 270-pound defensive lineman who made a verbal commitment to play at the University of Pittsburgh next year. MANASSEH GARNERBRASHEAR BRUCE PATTERSONBRASHEAR HENRI CHATMANBRASHEAR Friday nights under the lights are back in western Pennsylvania. People will fill the stands in local high school football stadiums all over the region as this fall favorite re-appears. One team receiving national attention are the Indians of Penn Hills Senior High School. Pennsylvania Football News ranks them No. 10 in the state in class AAAA while they are No. 17 in the nation, according to rivals.com.
The Westinghouse girls’ basketball team has been projected by most to win the City League title once again. They currently have a 4-1 overall record and are the only team remaining in the league with an undefeated 2-0 conference record. Their only defeat was suffered at the hands of Rochester in the first game of the season. Schenley (3-4, 2-1) is in second place. Unlike the other City League teams that have two conference wins, they were able to get past Seneca Valley in a 39-37 thriller in the Gateway Tournament. Carrick and Perry are tied with Schenley with matching 2-1 conference records but have suffered losing records thus far by losing to non conference teams. Each team got their two wins within the City League.Carrick beat Peabody and Oliver, by the score of 55-25 on Dec. 12 and 15. Perry defeated Brashear 55-33 on Dec. 16 and then nearly a week later on the 22nd, they topped Langley in a 47-30 thrashing.Allderdice has an overall record of 2-2 and 1-1 in the conference which puts them behind Carrick and Perry with their multiple conference wins.Aside from the top five teams in the City League on the girls’ side, each team only has one win or less going into the fourth week of the season. GIRLS SCHEDULEJANUARY 8Allderdice at CarrickWestinghouse and Langley Schenley at Oliver Perry at Peabody, 7:30 p.m.STANDINGS Schools City OverallWestinghouse 2-0 4-1Schenley 2-1 3-4Carrick 2-1 2-4Perry 2-1 2-6Allderdice 1-1 2-2Langley 1-1 1-1Brashear 1-2 1-5Oliver 1-2 1-6Peabody 0-3 0-7
Image Courtesy: AFP/APAdvertisement 17rkNBA Finals | Brooklyn Vs5l3Wingsuit rodeo📽Sindre Ep5b( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) ifvoWould you ever consider trying this?😱zeCan your students do this? 🌚5rq2lRoller skating! Powered by Firework One month into the year of 2020, and the month of January has gifted the Indian cricket team their newfound jewel- KL Rahul. Who was known to be an opening batsman has now proven himself to be effective across the batting order. Moreover, the position of a wicket keeper, which was a subject of distress in the absence of MS Dhoni and the fumbling Rishab Pant, is now rightfully taken by Rahul, thanks to his marvellous performance behind the wicket. what is behind the cricketer’s rise to glory? His childhood coach acclaims Virat Kohli and AB de Villiers.Advertisement Image Courtesy: AFP/APSamuel Jayaraj Muthu, who is the head coach at Mangalore Sports Club Cricket Academy, was the mentor of KL Rahul since he was eight years old. In a personal interview with the Times of India, Jayraj credited the Men in Blue skipper Virat Kohli and South Africa cricket team talisman AB de Villers behind Rahul’s fantastic performance.“He (KL Rahul) spoke with a number of cricketers. He spoke with AB de Villiers and Virat Kohli. Virat spoke with him and motivated him. Apart from ABD and Virat, some more former cricketers spoke with him. But I would give the credit to ABD and Virat.” Jayraj said.Advertisement Rahul’s success with the gloves came as a substitute after Rishab Pant suffered a concussion during the first match in the Australia ODI series in January. Despite India losing the match, the Karnataka superstar needed one defending innings to prove his worth as the keeper.Pointers from the Proteas icon, who was named ICC ODI Player of the Year three times, along with the Indian skipper’s trust in his teammate has worked positively for Rahul, Jayraj stated.Advertisement Rahul’s chidhood mentor continued: “ABD understands him better because he is also a wicket keeper-batsman. Virat showed confidence in him. Virat knew how talented Rahul is. Watch KL’s stance closely, it is very very balanced. He looks calm before the ball reaches him. That’s one of the changes he has brought into his game.” Along with a stunning wicket keeping performance, Rahul has also shined as a batsman. In the Aussie ODI series, the 27 year old scored 146 runs with one half century, followed by a swashbuckling performance in the 5-0 whitewash in the New Zealand T20 series, scoring 224 runs, including two fifties. Although India suffered a 3-0 ODI series loss against the Kiwis, Rahul shied with scoring 204 runs in the series across three games.Carrying on the interview, Jayraj revealed that Rahul started his wicket keeping training from a young age: “When he was a kid, I used to ask him to keep the wickets.”He also added that the new role of wicket keeping has been productive for Rahul’s performance with the bat: “He was always a wicket-keeper. Wicket keeping for India has come as a blessing in disguise for him. As a wicket keeper you have to keep vigil on all 300 deliveries behind the wickets. Wicket keeping has helped him in his batting.”Also read-Bhajji reveals who India’s ‘No.1 choice spinner’ for T20 World Cup should be Advertisement
Studying Sweeney’s merger recommendation from both perspectives, Coffey said it’s a circumstance of “different strokes for different folks.” If this recommendation is adopted, it could cause a complicated situation in Colts Neck, among other local regional school districts. During a presentation April 16 to members of the New Jersey Business and Industry Association at their headquarters in Trenton, Sweeney said, “You can’t change the system if you don’t fix the system.” Under the proposal, these three lower level schools would fall under the umbrella of the FRSD, which would also have to account for lower level schools in the five other districts, which could lead to costly contract negotiations as the salaries and health benefits of faculty and staff are equalized. The Colts Neck superintendent could not be reached for comment. Sweeney then unveiled a list of 32 recommendations, titled a “Path to Progress,” proposed by the workgroup, which includes the merger of all elementary and middle school districts into K-12 regional districts. Last year New Jersey Senate President Steve Sweeney assembled 26 experts as part of an economic and fiscal policy workgroup that was charged with studying tax and fiscal policy, while identifying methods for New Jersey to combat soaring pension and benefit costs, stabilize property tax levies and, among other tasks, make school districts more efficient. The township’s lower level schools – Conover Road Primary, Conover Road Elementary and Cedar Drive Middle Schools – are currently governed by their own superintendent as part of the Colts Neck Township School District. Several Two River-area school districts could be targeted for consolidation after a series of new recommendations were delivered last week by New Jersey’s top lawmaker. Once these schools merge, Kossack said teachers at the highest end of the wage scale would be unlikely to accept salary cuts to level the compensation among new colleagues at consolidated schools. Kossack said part of the job description in a smaller district is a hands-on approach to educational management and leadership, including regular in-class observations of faculty and meetings with staff members to gain a better understanding of issues that are important to their school communities. “Hypothetically, the financial impact would far exceed the total savings for reducing the superintendents,” said Carolyn M. Kossack, Little Silver public schools superintendent. “You’re talking about negotiating more than one common contract across several municipalities. That’s a big task.” Colts Neck Township High School is part of the Freehold Regional School District (FRSD), alongside Freehold Boro, Freehold Township, Howell, Manalapan and Marlboro high schools. Kossack’s Little Silverschools, together with thosein Red Bank and Shrewsbury,would fall under the directionof the Red Bank RegionalHigh School District. In theory, Sweeney’s proposal calls for the elimination of superintendent positions in smaller school districts, placing the oversight of those consolidated elementary and middle school communities under the purview of their regional high school superintendent. “For lack of a better expression, that sense of intimacy creates a stronger communal climate. When a superintendent walks the halls and knows the teachers and staff and can connect with them about life, it creates more understanding,” Kossack said. “When you get to a point of regionalizing and becoming so large, you risk losing that intimacy.” “You can quantify the exact cost savings of eliminating ‘x’ number of superintendents. But there’s a value to each of those towns having their own superintendent that is not as easily calculable,” Coffey said. “It’s like the last photo I have of my mother and I. The photo itself is worth about 7 cents. But to me, I can’t put a personal value on it.” He also serves as the corporation counsel for the City of Bayonne, a municipality considered to have a large school district, like Middletown and Holmdel townships. Coffey added that in smaller school districts like Oceanport, which would be managed by the Shore Regional High School District with schools from Monmouth Beach and West Long Branch, the notion of cost savings versus value added should be factored into the equation. With superintendents so involved in the day-to-day lives of their faculty and students, Kossack wonders if similar concerns will fall through the cracks should this consolidation measure be adopted. Over the last three years Kossack has filed letters to the state and spoken with legislators from New Jersey’s 11th and 13th congressional districts advocating for additional funding for special needs students in Little Silver and around the Two River peninsula. “The goal is to eliminate the administration, but keep the principals in the schools and let the regional high school become a K-12 district,” Sweeney said. “It’s dangerous to applya broad scope plan to reallynarrowly scoped issues, andI don’t think there’s a panaceathat can be applied across thestate,” Coffey said. “Whetherconsolidation is good or bad iscompletely dependent on thesituation. What may be goodfor one town or county maynot be good for another. Thefinancial layers of muscle willbe different in a big schoolsystem versus a smaller one.” “You’ll probably save close to about a billion dollars,” Sweeney said, noting the annual total cost savings to tax payers. “Instead, salaries and benefits would have to be negotiated up,” Kossack said. “And you’d see the same trickle-up effect with administrative staff, too.” Before winning a mayoralelection in 2015 as a write-incandidate, Jay Coffey was amember of the OceanportBoard of Education, anotherschool district selected forconsolidation.
Nelson Jays held off a late charge to edge the Trail Reds 11-9 in West Kootenay Junior Babe Ruth Baseball action Wednesday night at Queen Elizabeth Park.It was the first time this season the Jays have been able to knock off the league leading Reds.Blair Sookro picked the the save in relief of Connor Comishin to secure the win.Charles Curiston and Ronan Grey also pitched for Nelson. Sookro also led the offence for the Jays with a three-run, inside-the-park home run.Johnny Melinchuk chipped with two-RBI’s.The Jays, 4-3-1 on the season, currently sit 3-1/2 games behind the Reds in West Kootenay Junior Babe Ruth standings.Castlegar is third, five games behind Trail.Trail Reds have played 13 games while the Jays have only eight completed this season.The two teams hook up for a doubleheader Saturday in the Silver City.The playoffs start June 13.Nelson is the defending West Kootenay Junior Babe Ruth Champ.
Has an intelligent design paper been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences?1 Read the abstract and decide whether this research supports Darwinism or design:Functional redundancies, generated by gene duplications, are highly widespread throughout all known genomes. One consequence of these redundancies is a tremendous increase to the robustness of organisms to mutations and other stresses. Yet, this very robustness also renders redundancy evolutionarily unstable, and it is, thus, predicted to have only a transient lifetime. In contrast, numerous reports describe instances of functional overlaps that have been conserved throughout extended evolutionary periods. More interestingly, many such backed-up genes were shown to be transcriptionally responsive to the intactness of their redundant partner and are up-regulated if the latter is mutationally inactivated. By manual inspection of the literature, we have compiled a list of such “responsive backup circuits” in a diverse list of species. Reviewing these responsive backup circuits, we extract recurring principles characterizing their regulation. We then apply modeling approaches to explore further their dynamic properties. Our results demonstrate that responsive backup circuits may function as ideal devices for filtering nongenetic noise from transcriptional pathways and obtaining regulatory precision. We thus challenge the view that such redundancies are simply leftovers of ancient duplications and suggest they are an additional component to the sophisticated machinery of cellular regulation. In this respect, we suggest that compensation for gene loss is merely a side effect of sophisticated design principles using functional redundancy.The three authors, all from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel, speak freely of the evolution of this phenomenon in their paper; they also, interestingly, refer to design and design principles just as often:In particular, we suggest the existence of regulatory designs that exploit redundancy to achieve functionalities such as control of noise in gene expression or extreme flexibility in gene regulation. In this respect, we suggest that compensation for gene loss is merely a side effect of sophisticated design principles using functional redundancy. Clues for regulatory designs controlling redundancy were obtained first in a recent study…They call these cases of functional redundancy responsive backup circuits (RBCs). Interestingly, they found some cases where one RBC is regulated by another RBC. Though often the two backup copies were differently regulated, they could become coregulated under certain environmental conditions. The team also found that some of these functionally redundant genes are found all the way from yeast to mammals; this is sometimes called “evolutionary conservation” but actually describes stasis, not evolution. The authors do not deny that these backup systems evolved somehow: “For a single cell, the ability to quickly and efficiently respond to fluctuating environments is crucial and offers an obvious evolutionary advantage,” they postulate, suggesting that accidental duplication of genes was co-opted for this purpose. They do not get into any details of how this might have happened, however, and their analysis seems more interested on the complexity and design benefit of the systems. Their criteria for functional backups were stated thus: “Two lines of evidence could indicate a function’s direct benefit from existing redundancy: first is the evolutionary conservation of the functional overlap, and second is a nontrivial regulatory design that utilizes it.” How many such systems exist in nature they could not say, because there have not been enough studies. Many functionally equivalent copies of enzymes (isozymes) are known. The genes that produce them are often regulated by different pathways. Under stress, however, some can become coregulated to provide robustness against environmental irregularities or damaging mutations.The model that emerges is that although many isozymes are specialized for different environmental regimes, alarm signals induced by particular stress stimuli may call for their synergistic coexpression. Here, RBCs provide functional specialization together with extreme flexibility in gene control that could be activated when sufficient stress has been applied. For example, in yeast, glucose serves as a regulatory input for alternating between aerobic and anaerobic growth. Its presence is detected by two separate and independent signaling pathways, one probing intracellular glucose concentrations and the other probing extracellular concentrations.They searched the literature and found several interesting ones that are described in detail in the paper. “In all these cases, the common denominator is that one of the two duplicates is under repression in wild type and that that repression is relieved upon its partner’s mutation.” This raises an interesting question – one that could have been asked by someone in the intelligent design movement. They even answer a possible objection with a design principle:The extent to which genomic functional redundancies have influenced the way we think about biology can be appreciated simply by inspecting the vast number of times the word “redundancy” is specifically referred to in the biomedical literature (Fig. 5, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site). Particularly interesting is the abundance with which it is addressed in studies of developmental biology (Fig. 5). In fact, it is here that concepts such as “genetic buffering” and “canalization” first had been suggested. Furthermore, the robustness of the developmental phenotypes such as body morphologies and patterning have been repeatedly demonstrated. So the question is, are these redundancies simply leftovers of ancient duplications, or are they an additional component to the sophisticated machinery of cellular regulation? In criticism, one may argue that many of the reported redundancies do not actually represent functionally equivalent genes but rather reflect only partial functional overlap. In fact, knockout phenotypes have been described for a number of developmental genes that have redundant partners. For these reasons, it has been suggested to define redundancy as a measure of correlated, rather than degenerate, gene functions. Although these facts may suggest that redundancies have not evolved for the sake of buffering mutations, it has, in our opinion, little relevance to the question of whether they serve a functional role. The interesting question is, then, can such a functional role for the duplicated state be inferred from the way the two genes are regulated?Along that line, they found that the amount of upregulation of one gene was often dependent on the regulation of the other. This suggested to them that the sum of the expression of the two copies is nearly constant as a buffer against noise in the system. When one line gets noisy, due to a mutation, the other responds with more signal. They call this “dosage-dependent linear response.” In some cases during development, the responsive overlap decreases as the organism grows. In short, “The abundance of redundancies occurring in genes related to developmental processes, and their functional role as master regulators (Fig. 5) may be taken to suggest their utilization in either the flexibility or robustness of regulatory control.” Some examples they give are even more complex. RBCs may also be implicated in the resistance of some organisms to multiple drugs. In some cases, each isoform can compensate equally for the other; in others, one of the forms is the main (the controller) and the other acts as the backup (the responder), only coming into play when the primary goes sour. “One of the most profound and insightful of these recurring regulatory themes,” they exclaim, “is that, although both genes are capable of some functional compensation, disruption of the responder produces a significantly less deleterious phenotype than disruption of the controller”. In evolutionary terms, why would the backup copy be better?A simple potential interpretation may suggest that although the controller is the key player performing some essential biological role, the responder is merely a less efficient substitute. Yet, accepting the notion that redundancy could not have evolved for the sake of buffering mutations, this interpretation still is severely lacking. A different, and more biologically reasonable, hypothesis accounting these asymmetries is that one of the functions of the responder is to buffer dosage fluctuations of the controller. This buffering capacity requires a functional overlap that also manifests itself in compensations against the more rare event of gene loss. Other models accounting for this assymetry are discussed further in this work, but our main point of argument is that this complex regulation of functionally redundant, yet evolutionarily conserved genes, strongly indicates utilization of redundancy.Their next subsection is called “Regulatory Designs.” What emerges from their discussion of how each gene can regulate its partner is a complex picture: in one case, “redundancy is embedded within a more complex interaction network that includes a unidirectional responsive circuit in which the controller (dlx3) also represses its own transcription, whereas the responder (dlx7) is a positive autoregulator.” More examples like this are described. They predicted, and found, that RBCs could also regulate “downstream processes from variation and fluctuations arising from nongenetic noise.” The net result is that by using these functional backup systems, the organism has more robustness against perturbations, yet more flexibility in a dynamic environment. What is the fruit of this research? Why should scientists look for these “regulatory designs” in the cell? They offer an intriguing example. It is known that one form of human muscular dystrophy occurs when a member of an RBC suffers a mutation. Studies of this pair in mice, however, shows that the other member can respond by upregulating its expression. It is thought a similar response might occur in humans. “Inspired by the compensatory effect demonstrated by this RBC in mice, its artificial induction in humans by means of gene therapy has been suggested. Although such modalities have not yet been realized, they suggest a fruitful possibility.”1Kafri, Levy and Pilpel, “The regulatory utilization of genetic redundancy through responsive backup circuits,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0604883103, published online before print July 21, 2006This is really a remarkable paper filled with inspiring possibilities. If we can just think design instead of years of mindless mutations, we might find cures for debilitating diseases. This paper has much of the obligatory evolutionspeak, but what does Darwinian thinking really contribute? Nothing. Although the researchers paid lip service to the evolutionary explanation that members of RBC pairs might have arisen through gene duplication, and that the coregulation might have provided a selectable fitness advantage, such language is really nothing more than the usual aftermarket sales pitch on the designed product. The real heart of their argument was that design exists, it is functional, and we can learn from it in ways that could help mankind. The future of design-theoretic science looks bright.(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
TweetPinShare0 Shares NEW YORK — A New York judge on Nov. 16 rejected the requests of daily fantasy sports operators DraftKings and FanDuel for temporary restraining orders to block the state attorney general’s attempt to shut them down.In separate complaints filed Nov. 13 in state Supreme Court in Manhattan, FanDuel and DraftKings first asked a judge for an injunction, arguing that Attorney General Eric Schneiderman wrongly characterized their businesses as illegal gambling operations.On Nov. 16, Boston-based DraftKings and New York-based FanDuel asked Justice Manuel Mendez for an immediate restraining order to stop Schneiderman until they can present their case. Each said they face irreparable damage otherwise.DraftKings said it has 375,000 New Yorkers among some 2.5 million players, and that the attorney general told its vendors in letters that it was at risk of not doing business in New York anymore.FanDuel said it has over 1 million users, with “hundreds of thousands” in New York whose deposits it has been unable to process since Nov. 13.The company blamed that on Schneiderman’s office, saying it has already contacted the bank and payment processors handling FanDuel’s customer deposits and withdrawals, deterring them from continuing.Schneiderman’s lawyers told Mendez at a hearing late Nov. 16 that they hadn’t done anything to actually prevent the companies from doing business in New York, and therefore he couldn’t issue an order to stop it.Mendez agreed. “They have not taken action yet to somehow enjoin the plaintiff from continuing to engage in their business here in New York,” he said. He ordered them back to court on Nov. 25.The case began with cease and desist letters sent by the attorney general last week, warning DraftKings and FanDuel they should stop conducting illegal gambling in New York.DraftKings and FanDuel argue that they offer games of skill, not of chance, as defined New York’s gambling laws.DraftKings said it was “confident in our legal position” and intended to keep operating in the state.____By Deepti Hajela. AP writer Michael Virtanen in Albany, New York, contributed