Track Condition : Dirt : GoodRace 1 1000 M (S) (Purse $590,000) 3-Y-O & UP CLM($450,0-$400,0)/NB5YO – NW4*1. FRANKENSTORM WHenry 53.02. ROCKETEER HLewis 51.5 9L3. OFFICIAL REPORT JPatterson4 48.0 1/2L4. ZEEVA AChatrie 52.5 1 1/2LWIN: $126.00Final Time : 1:00.1 Splits : 22.4, 46.0Winner : 6yo b horse – OUTRIGGER – SEEKING LILTrainer : ANDREW MCDONALD Owner : NICHOLAS MILLERBred by HAM STABLES LTD.Qu: $278.00 Ex: $507.00Trifecta: $402.00Race 2 1500 M (Purse $500,000) NB4-Y-O & UP MAIDEN CONDITION RACE1. BIG BUCK JInnis4 53.02. JAGRETEE OEdwards3 51.0 1 10 1/2L*3. MR. TOPPER TOP MAN AChatrie 56.0 2 1/2L4. SILVER SURF HPottinger4 53.0 HeadLate scratch : #2 LITTLE PRINCE, #6 MR. GRAND NATIONALWIN: $150.00PLACE: $56.00, $70.00, $54.00Final Time : 1:39.1 Splits : 23.4, 47.4, 1:14.3,Winner : 4yo b colt – WHO’S STAYIN ON – BUCKS ORCHIDTrainer : WAYNE PARCHMENT Owner : V.M.W.Bred by VINCENT LUMSDENNOTE: HORSE #1 SILVER SURF CAME 2ND, BUT WAS DISQUALIFIED AND PLACED 4TH.Qu: $639.00 Ex: $1,166.00D/E: $552.00 (6-6) $95.00Superfecta: $2,882.00Race 3 1200 M (Purse $560,000) NB5-Y-O & UP RESTRICTED ALLOWANCE IV(NW3) (DIV.I)1. EXPLOSIVE PRINCESS DaneNelson 53.02. RUNNER RUNNER DDawkins3 51.0 1 3/4L3. SURE MAN RWilson 54.0 1 3/4L4. GENUINE FRIEND OEdwards3 50.0 3 1/2LLate scratch : #3 JAVINEWIN: $177.00PLACE: $136.00, $72.00, $115.00Final Time : 1:16.2 Splits : 23.0, 47.3Winner : 5yo ch filly – BURNING MARQUE – EXPLOSIVE PEAKTrainer : RAYMOND TOWNSEND Owner : MISS SUCKIEBred by ELAINE MCMASTERQu: $905.00 Ex: $1,503.00D/E: $775.00 (5-3) $66.00Superfecta: $9,926.00Rolling Triple: $2,720.00Race 4 1600 M (Purse $768,000) NB3-Y-O MAIDEN CONDITION RACE*1. IAN LINKS OWalker 56.02. DR. TRAIN DaneNelson 52.0 1 1/4L3. MISTER BONES CChow 55.0 2L4. MR. DOITBETTA JErwin 56.0 2 1/4L5. WARTIME AMartin 54.0 1/2LLate scratch : #11 QUEEN OF BAGDADWIN: $114.00PLACE: $62.00, $64.00, $72.00Final Time : 1:41.3 Splits : 24.0, 46.3, 1:13.1Winner : 3yo b colt – FEARLESS VISION – WITCHCRAFTTrainer : WAYNE DACOSTA Owner : IAN LODGEBred by ORANGE VALLEY ESTATES LTD.Qu: $159.00 Ex: $464.00D/E: $528.00 (4-11) $650.00Trifecta: $220.00Hi-5: $6,589.00Rolling Triple: $1,653.00Race 5 1200 M (Purse $560,000) NB5-Y-O & UP RESTRICTED ALLOWANCE IV(NW3) (DIV.II)1. NATASHADONTPLAY JPatterson4 50.0*2. RAY RAY OnBeckford4 51.5 2 3/4L3. KING NEBARUE AntThomas4 50.0 5L4. SEAL THE DEAL JErwin 54.0 1 1/2LLate scratch : #6 TWO STEPS UPWIN: $155.00PLACE: $92.00, $73.00, $182.00Final Time : 1:15.2 Splits : 23.1, 47.1Winner : 5yo ch filly – WAR MARSHALL – TAWNEE PRINCESSTrainer : UTON STEWART Owner: BANTON DON’T PLAYBred by RUSSELL MARSHALL JR.Qu: $198.00 Ex: $421.00D/E: $369.00Superfecta: $5,026.00Rolling Triple: $1,673.00Race 6 1100 M (Purse $530,000) 3-Y-O & UP CLM($250,0-$210,0)/NB5YNW2 & 6YO&UP-NW4*1. LEGAL ACCOUNT OWalker 55.02. UNCLE G JPatterson4 52.0 6 1/2L3. KIMBERLY GOLD OEdwards3 50.0 1 3/4L4. ST. BERNARD DaneNelson 54.0 1 1/4L5. SOUND OF MIRACLE JInnis4 48.0 1 1/4L6. REGGAE GOLD WHenry 57.0 2 1/4LLate scratch : #2 EL CLIENTEWIN: $97.00PLACE: $65.00, $84.00, $240.00Final Time : 1:08.2 Splits : 23.1, 47.1Winner : 4yo ch colt – LEGAL PROCESS – LADY POOJATrainer : WAYNE DACOSTA Owner: CARLTON WATSONBred by HENRY JAGHAI O.D., J.P.Qu: $248.00 Ex: $323.00D/E: $351.00Trifecta: $788.00Hit-6: $34,789.50Rolling Triple: $757.00Super-6: $10,380.60Race 7 1500 M (Purse $780,000) 3-Y-O & UP OVERNIGHT ALLOWANCE*1. HOVER CRAFT OWalker 54.02. MIRACLE STAR AChatrie 54.0 2 3/4L3. ORIGINAL TRAIN WHenry 53.0 1 1/4L4. WESTERN ROSE OMullings 51.0 3/4L5. COMMANDING CHIEF DaneNelson 53.0 2LLate scratch : #11 FUTURE KINGWIN: $113.00PLACE: $53.00, $73.00, $62.00Final Time : 1:33.0 Splits : 23.4, 46.4, 1:11.4Winner : 6yo b horse – HE’STHEREALTHING – ROYAL PIZZAZTrainer : WAYNE DACOSTA Owner : ELIZABETH A DACOSTABred by MARK & SUSAN WATESQu: $518.00 Ex: $714.00D/E: $191.00Trifecta: $491.00Hi-5: $94,139.50Rolling Triple: $771.00Pick-4: $1,488.00THORNBIRD STAKESRace 8 1400 M (Purse $1,100,000) NB3-Y-O GRADED STAKES -FILLIES*1. NUCLEAR AFFAIR DaneNelson 53.02. BIRD CATCHER OWhite 51.0 4 1/4L3. BUBBLING KITTEN ISpence 56.0 3/4L 151.004. DREAMING THE CODE JPatterson4 48.0 2 1/4LWIN: $76.00PLACE: $58.00, $91.00, $151.00Final Time : 1:27.0 Splits : 23.0, 46.0, 1:12.1Winner : 3yo filly – NUCLEAR WAYNE – COMMANDRA AFFAIRTrainer : GARY SUBRATIE Owner : MICHROSBred by MICHAEL BERNARDQu: $361.00 Ex: $479.00D/E: $221.00Superfecta: $7,174.00Rolling Triple: $327.00Race 9 1300 M (Purse $500,000) 4YO&UP CLM($180,0)-NOT EARNED $120,0 SINCE NOV.191. GENERAL TOGO BBell 52.02. SONGS OF FREEDOM DDawkins3 52.0 2 1/4L3. VERONICA B AGray4 51.5 3/4L*4. BALA BAD GAL LINKS SEllis 53.0 2 1/2L5. SACHIN JPatterson4 52.0 Sh.HeadWIN: $1197.00PLACE: $442.00, $277.00, $111.00Final Time : 1:24.4 Splits : 24.0, 48.2, 1:16.2Winner : 6yo ch horse – WAR MARSHALL – VICTREEBELTrainer : CONROY TULLOCH Owner : EWART E BROWNBred by MICHAEL BEECHAMQu: $5,722.00 Ex: $13,493.00D/E: $1,630.00Trifecta: $25,776.00Hi-5 carry-over : $53,374.75Rolling Triple: $5,552.00PlacePot 8: $13,291.00PRINCE CONSORT STAKESRace 10 1400 M (Purse $1,100,000) NB3-Y-O GRADED STAKES -COLTS & GELDINGS1. CHACE THE GREAT AChatrie 52.0*2. ORPHEUS SEllis 53.0 1 3/4L3. BIGDADDYKOOL RHalledeen 53.0 1 3/4L4. LORD EQUUS OMullings 51.0 Sh.Head5. JAMAI RAJA SMuir 54.0 3 1/4LWIN: $287.00PLACE: $162.00, $89.00, $121.00Final Time : 1:26.4 Splits : 23.3, 46.1, 1:12.2,Winner : 3yo ch colt – GREATNESS – OUR MISS RUTHTrainer : DWIGHT CHEN Owner: VINCENT ATKINSONBred by VINCENT ATKINSONQu: $392.00 Ex: $1,060.00D/E: $7,799.00Trifecta: $984.00Hi-5: $110,396.00Rolling Triple: $37,198.00Race 11 1200 M (Purse $530,000) NB4-Y-O & UP RESTRICTED ALLOWANCE V(NW2)1. BIMINI AChatrie 54.02. TRADITIONAL STORM OnBeckford4 50.5 5L3. LAZZA JErwin 56.0 1 1/4L4. MONALISASMILE HLewis 53.0 1 1/4L*5. JESSE’S FAVORITE PFrancis 51.0 NeckLate scratch : #1 ARIZONA GOLDWIN: $134.00PLACE: $71.00, $567.00, $174.00Final Time : 1:15.0 Splits : 22.4, 46.2, ,Winner : 4yo filly – SEEKING THE GLORY – MARIA ELENATrainer : PATRICK SMELLIE Owner : OAKRIDGE FARMSBred by DONALD G. WEHBYQu: $3,446.00 Ex: $7,761.00D/E: $666.00Trifecta: $12,342.00Hi-5 Carry-over: $182,104.00Rolling Triple: $55,449.00Pick-4: $57,228.00 (4 OF 4)Super-6: $97,767.60 (6 OF 6)Pick-9: $5,253,753.50 (9 OF 9)
The Athletics looked comfortably ahead at 64-54 in the last four minutes before the Cagers mounted a fightback that fell short.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Green group flags ‘overkill’ use of plastic banderitas in Manila Sto. Niño feast Jo Koy draws ire for cutting through Cebu City traffic with ‘wang-wang’ Judy Ann’s 1st project for 2020 is giving her a ‘stomachache’ Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Challenge accepted MOST READ Truck driver killed in Davao del Sur road accident View comments After watching a late lead almost slip away in Game 1, Batangas City-Tanduay knows there’s little room for error as the Athletics try to move on the brink of the MPBL Anta Rajah Cup crown on Saturday.Batangas battles Muntinlupa-Angelis Resort anew at Batangas Sports Coliseum, two nights after escaping with a 70-64 win in the series opener.ADVERTISEMENT Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next P16.5-M worth of aid provided for Taal Volcano eruption victims — NDRRMC Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikina Scientists seek rare species survivors amid Australia flames LATEST STORIES
Citizenship Minister Winston Felix on Saturday visited Thomas Hill, Mabaruma, Region One (Barima-Waini), where he addressed the residents’ concerns about the need for improved delivery of birth certificates in far-flung communities.He assured that measures would be put in place to better the current distribution of certificates in the community.Adams making a point to the minister on Saturday“We are here today to ensure your needs are met, to evaluate each community’s development and to fix what is lacking. As I am here, I urge those who have issues with their existing birth papers to come forward so that your issue can be documented,” Felix told the gathering.The Department of Public Information (DPI) reported that the Minister also outlined the measures his office has implemented thus far to decentralise citizenship, immigration and birth registration services across the country.He noted that to date, two new passport and immigration offices have been opened – one in Linden and the other in Berbice to the tune of $31 million and $57.5 million respectively. Both will provide services in the provision of birth, marriage and death certificates.Minister of Citizenship, Winston FelixBefore meeting with the residents, Felix also conducted a walk-about to assess development within the community. He noted that there was a “well-constructed primary school, a solar farm, proper water storage and distribution for the villagers”.These services, he assured, were just a start and the Administration would continue to provide more to the hinterland communities.A resident, Sheila Adams related that for years the small community has suffered from several shortages, such as inadequate water and poor health service.
0Shares0000Pallbearers carrying the casket of the former Harambee Stars assistant coach Sammy Nyongesa. Photo/WANJIRU MACHARIANAIROBI, Kenya, Sep 7 – Fallen former Harambee Stars assistant coach, Sammy Nyongesa was on Friday accorded a fitting send off at his Ngata farm in Nakuru.Leaders at the burial ceremony which was filled with jokes and smiles asked the Government to appreciate his contributions to football development in Kenya. His students on the pitch who have since formed a strategic working team and set goals on ways to commemorate Nyongesa, asked the Government to revive the National Football Youth Centres to nature talents.Nyongesa was the brainchild behind the youth centres which produced great footballers among the Ambrose Ayoyi, John Shotoo Lukoe, Joseph Oduor and John Mo Muiruri among others.Instead of being teary and all emotional, Nyongesa’s widow and all his 12 children from three women, decided to treat the mourners with laughter as they shared their fun moments with him.Pallbearers carrying the casket of the former Harambee Stars assistant coach Sammy Nyongesa. Photo/WANJIRU MACHARIAThe wife, Ruth Atieno Nyongesa humorously described her husband as a generous man who scored on the pitch and elsewhere.“My husband was very generous and as you can see, I have a big family, they are all my children and I love them all,” she said to a round of laughter and applause from the mourners.She went ahead to introduce mothers of some of her children and asked if there were others unknown to her in the congregation.“If there are other offspring of Nyongesa in the congregation that have not been introduced to me, kindly come forward, you are mine too,” she added.She narrated how she and her husband would laugh at the fact that his opponents at Gor Mahia would taunt him as ‘senior bachelor’ then he decided to marry their own which made them bite the humble pie and they changed the title to ‘in-law’.The children described their father as loving playmate and a firm disciplinarian.Nyongesa died of prostate cancer on August 24 at War Memorial Hospital in Nakuru. He leaves behind a widow and 12 children. Most of the football players he mentored attended the ceremony.0Shares0000(Visited 3 times, 1 visits today)
AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREThe top 10 theme park moments of 2019 But Wainwright, 58, who began working this month as a substitute teacher at Sylmar High, said a heart condition prevents him from teaching the night and weekend classes, even though he was offered the post by Grant High School Principal Linda Ibach. But he said he was glad the classes will continue. “That’s better than nothing,” he said. “To be able to save the program – that’s the bottom line for me.” The adult education division hopes to eventually align the program with Pierce College, so Grant students would be able to earn Advanced Placement credit in landscaping or horticulture, officials said. “When we can tie something in to a community college that can lead to a degree objective, as well as career opportunities, then it becomes an extra special program,” Lauritzen said. VAN NUYS – Grant High School was unable to save its successful agriculture program but will offer some classes after school and on Saturdays, although without its popular instructor, officials said Thursday. The program, taught for 28 years by Colin “Doc” Wainwright, ended Sept. 30, after a 300-student drop in enrollment forced campus officials to reassign four teachers and cut several classes. “We saved at least a semblance of the program,” said Los Angeles Unified school board member Jon Lauritzen, who fought to save the program. “It’s something we can revisit and redesign.” The after-school and weekend classes will be funded through an adult education program open only to the Grant students. Lisa M. Sodders, (818) 713-3663 firstname.lastname@example.org 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Anthony Bowie scored a golden goal in the 108th minute of double-overtime for Western Michigan (8-2). The golden goal came just minutes after Drake (3-6) had two headed balls just miss finding the net as attempts by seniors Eric Williams (West Des Moines, Iowa) and James Grunert (Muskego, Wis.) hit the crossbar and went wide, respectively. Preview PDF Box Score Drake held that 1-0 lead until the 86th minute when Western Michigan tied the game at 1-1. Brandon Bye headed the ball into the goal off a corner kick by his teammate, Edu Jimenez. Full Schedule Roster Junior Nick Manzoni (Orono, Minn.) took the first shot of the first overtime session, but it was saved by WMU goalie, Drew Shepard. Watch Live Story Links at SIUE 10/1/2016 – 7 PM KALAMAZOO, Mich. – Western Michigan rallied to defeat the Drake University men’s soccer team, 2-1, on Tuesday, Sept. 27. Live Stats “It was a great match for spectators as they watched two teams fight and compete for the result,” said Drake acting head coach Kyle Smith. “Western Michigan is a very good team as their record shows.” HTML Box Score Drake staked an early 1-0 lead in the game after Western Michigan allowed an own goal at the 2:48 mark. The Broncos’ miss-cleared header of the box led to the own goal. Next Game: “We are disappointed in the result but our overall performance was very good,” Smith said. “We invested a lot into the game and had several chances to win it in regular time and overtime. In pursuing the win, we got caught on the counter, which was disappointing as this is something we addressed. A painful result, but a very gritty and positive performance. We need to keep focusing on the process of improving and the result will shift in our favor.” Drake returns to Missouri Valley Conference play Saturday, Oct. 1 when it visits Edwardsville, Ill., to take on SIUE at 7 p.m. Print Friendly Version
Cleared: Martin BegleyA DONEGAL man has been cleared of rape charges.Martin Begley told Donegal Daily his life had been “ruined” by the allegations against him. Earlier this year police in England issued a ‘wanted’ poster naming and picturing Mr Begley, 47, after he failed to appear in court.After the appeal Mr Begley, from St Johnston, gave himself up to police and went before a jury at Bolton Crown Court on several charges.He was found not guilty on all charges.” I did six months on remand in an English prison and all together it has taken two years of my life to fight the lies made against me.“In that time time I have lost my business, my home and my good name,” said Mr Begley.DONEGAL MAN CLEARED ON RAPE CHARGES was last modified: October 15th, 2013 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
VIDEO: Columnist Dieter Kurtenbach looks ahead at the Golden State Warriors schedule and sees the team facing tough matchups against the Utah Jazz’s Rudy Gobert, Denver Nuggets’ Nikola Jokic and the Phoenix Sun’s rookie DeAndre Ayton. OAKLAND — The Warriors opened up the 2018-19 season with a victory Tuesday, beating the Oklahoma City Thunder (sans Russell Westbrook) 108-100 at Oracle Arena.It’s just one game — there are 81 left to play (plus playoffs) — but that doesn’t mean that there …
ALAMEDA — It turns out Jalen Richard is a back for all downs.“Jalen Richard might be the MVP of our team,” Raiders coach Jon Gruden said Monday at his weekly press conference.Richard had 11 rushes for a team-high 61 yards and added three catches for 32 yards in a 23-21 road win over the Arizona Cardinals Sunday, a performance that reminded his head coach of a back who had one of the best seasons in franchise history. “He is a Charlie Garner type back,” Gruden said. “He’s a guy …
How well do the leaders of the world’s major scientific institutions understand the nature of science? This rather audacious question is occasioned by recent statements by scientific leaders that might raise the eyebrows of some philosophers of science. No serious philosopher of science denies the benefits wrought by medicine, physics, chemistry and biology; after all, science took us to the moon. But “Science is one of those troublesome nouns that seems to convey too little by standing for too much,” said philosopher Daniel J. Robinson in a lecture on philosophy of science.1 A philosopher with a deep respect for science, Robinson nonetheless went on to illustrate widespread disagreement among the world’s foremost philosophers of science as to just what it is, and how science can be distinguished from non-science. Though few would see trouble classifying physics and chemistry as sciences, what about economics, political science, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and what earlier generations referred to as moral science? Because of its many achievements, the word science has taken on an aura of honor and authority that can be misconstrued, as with the cults of Christian Science, Science of Mind, and Scientology. Yet the need for precise definitions and criteria are often overlooked by practicing scientists. Without clarity, using a broad-brush term like science can obscure rather than enlighten a discussion. Much of the controversy over the status of Intelligent Design (ID) revolves around the definition of science. This came to the forefront in the Kansas school board decision to change the definition from “natural explanations for phenomena” (05/18/2005) to “explanations for natural phenomena” (11/08/2005) To many evolutionists, this was a sneaky way for creationists to open the door for “supernatural” explanations in science. Bruce Alberts, former president of the National Academy of Sciences now at UC San Francisco, underscored that point of contention forcefully in a commentary in Cell about science education that he gave the alarming title, “A Wakeup Call for Science Faculty.”2 We have recently received a wakeup call. A new survey finds that two-thirds of Americans agree with some of our political leaders that “intelligent design theory” should be taught as an alternative scientific explanation of biological evolution. What does this mean? According to intelligent design theory, supernatural forces acting over time have intervened to shape the macromolecules in cells, thereby forming them into the elegant protein machines that drive a cell’s biochemistry (Alberts, 1998). In other words, at least from time to time, living things fail to obey the normal laws of physics and chemistry. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)The 1998 reference was to his earlier paper in Cell titled, “The cell as a collection of protein machines: preparing the next generation of molecular biologists,” in which Alberts said, “the entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each of which is composed of a set of large protein machines” (01/09/2002). This quote got him into some trouble because it has been widely quoted by intelligent design proponents. Clearly, Alberts and other evolutionary biologists do not dispute the existence of biological machinery that looks designed; the question is whether these natural objects can have natural explanations. The quotation above also begs the question whether intelligence (the explanatory agent in “intelligent design”) necessarily denotes a “supernatural force,” or to what extent intervention can be natural, unnatural, or supernatural. “Natural,” too, is one of those words with multiple meanings, depending on the context. Intellectual historian Alan Charles Kors demonstrated this point by listing several ways the word “nature” has been used historically in science and philosophy.3 Most scientists assume that nature refers to anything empirically observed: anything not “supernatural” is “natural,” in this view. But nature can also mean a statistical norm: i.e., the usual action or behavior of something: for instance, it is natural for parents to care for their children. Natural in this sense can have moral content and is not necessarily the opposite of supernaturalism. “Finally,” his notes state, “we can understand nature as essence (that which distinguishes the creature from all other things).” For example, when humans use their distinguishing faculty called reason to interact with the world, that behavior can be called natural; failing to use reason would certainly not be considered supernatural, but rather unnatural. That raises additional questions. Does reason qualify as a “natural” phenomenon? If it is subsumed under the laws of chemistry and physics alone, is it really reason? Or does the observation of unnatural things fall within the realm of science? Scientists can quickly fall into traps when trying to define science and natural too narrowly. They might rule existing scientific studies, like abnormal psychology (11/13/2005), out of court, or even deny the validity of their own conclusions. Yet the black-and-white meanings sufficed for Alberts to rule out intelligent design by definition. Having summarily dispensed with ID, he appealed to emotional arguments to suggest that only evolutionary biology can cure cancer:Teaching intelligent design theory in science class would demand nothing less than a complete change in the definition of science. This definition would give those of us who are scientists an “easy out” for the difficult problems we are trying to solve in our research. For example, why spend a lifetime, constrained by the laws of physics and chemistry, trying to obtain a deep understanding of how cells accumulate mutations and become cancerous if one can postulate a supernatural step for part of the process? Yet we can be certain that, without the deep understanding that will eventually come from insisting on natural explanations, many powerful cancer therapies will be missed.This argument, however, also begs the question whether physical and chemical laws fully explain biological behavior, such as how cells accumulate mutations and become cancerous. With computers, by analogy, it is clear that the silicon, plastic, glass and metal are “natural” (empirically observable) objects subject to the laws of chemistry and physics – drop a computer from a height, and it will fall at 32 feet per second per second and obey the second law of thermodynamics – yet an important part of the “nature” of the computer, its essence as a device to run intelligently-designed software, would be overlooked. Knowing the physics and chemistry of the hardware would not help debug the software. In biology, mathematically-precise laws are hard to come by. The Harvard Law states cynically, “Given precise conditions of heat, pressure and temperature, the organism does what it darn well pleases.” Physics and biology are both classed as sciences, but the latter envies the elegant and deterministic equations of the former. Even Mendel’s equations of inheritance and the Hardy-Weinberg Law are statistical in nature, with many exceptions. The attempt to formalize evolutionary theory with mathematical rigor is fraught with problems and anomalies (see 10/26/2005, 10/01/2005, 08/19/2005). Conversely, modern theoretical physicists delve into questions not amenable to observation, like string theory and multiverses, and even write elegant equations about conceptual frameworks that might be dubbed “super”natural (because they lack empirical verification even in principle). To Alberts, however, more dogmatic assertions and emotional appeals suffice to restate the obvious, provided the words science and natural are left undefined:The idea that intelligent design theory could be part of science is preposterous. It is of course only by insisting on finding natural causes for everything observed in nature that science has been able to make such striking advances over the past 500 years. There is absolutely no reason to think that we should give up this fundamental principle of science now. Two-thirds of Americans might seem to have no real idea of what science is, nor why it has been so uniquely successful in unraveling the truth about the natural world. As I write, the Kansas State Board of Education has just changed the definition of science in revisions to the Kansas State Science Standards to one that does not include “natural explanations” for natural phenomena. What more proof do we need for the massive failure of our past teaching of biology, physics, chemistry, and earth sciences at high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States?Sparing Dr. Alberts the additional challenge of defining the words truth and reason, it seems premature to expect readers of Cell to charge out on his proposed crusade without knowing where they are going. He called on scientists to “completely redesign our undergraduate introductory science courses, so that all students come into direct contact with science as inquiry and are forced to develop their own understanding of what science is, and what it is not.” Alberts praised the approach of teaching “science as inquiry,” which stresses the finding answers rather than memorizing rote facts. This will be the demise of Intelligent Design, he assures: “It is through the careful analysis of why intelligent design is not science that students can perhaps best come to appreciate the nature of science itself.” This seems to do little more than reinforce definitions: we define science in such a way that intelligent design is not science, and that explains the nature of science – i.e., the only alternative, methodological naturalism. The reason why inquiry should be restricted to natural causes, furthermore, he failed to make clear. Throughout 2005, other leaders of large scientific institutions, such as Lord May of the Royal Society (11/30/2005), Alan Leshner of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (07/11/2005, 02/11/2005), and the editors of Science and Nature (09/28/2005, 08/13/2005, 08/10/2005, 05/19/2005, 04/27/2005) have echoed sentiments similar to those of Bruce Alberts (03/24/2005) Recognizing that early scientists referred to themselves as “natural philosophers,” perhaps this demonstrates the evolutionary principle of allopatric speciation by geographical isolation between the science and philosophy departments. Or was that by design?1Daniel J. Robinson, “Philosophy of science,” The Great Ideas of Philosophy, The Teaching Company, 2002.2Bruce Alberts, “Commentary: A Wakeup Call to Science Faculty,” Cell, Vol 123, 739-741, 2 December 2005.3Alan Charles Kors, lecture 18, “Bishop Joseph Butler and God’s Providence,” The Birth of the Modern Mind, The Teaching Company, 1998.It is probably common for scientists to go through their entire educational career without a single philosophy of science class. Elementary and junior high schools often teach a Baconian view: just collect lots of facts, make observations, write a hypothesis, test it, take notes, and produce a science project to attract the attention of the judges and give Mom and Dad something to brag about. High school science is similar; science is what the textbook says and what scientists do. The budding scientist goes right into the university and starts taking calculus, astrophysics, biology or whatever, gets a degree, narrows his or her studies in grad school, gets a PhD, gets a job, and goes into a career – all without knowing what science is. Your commentator took years of science classes where the definition of science and nature were just assumed, or else were given simplistic Elizabethan definitions with no mention of the subsequent revolutions. The work consisted of math and word problems, homework, tests, experiments, memorization, projects, term papers and the like; rare was the teacher or professor who ever asked what is science?. This pattern was given a jolt in a one-semester elective on Philosophy of Science. The professor began by listing half a dozen well-known scientific facts on the chalkboard and proceeded to tell the class how all of them were untrue. He also brought up disturbing questions about how we know what we know, how much the experimental apparatus perturbs the phenomenon under investigation, whether models accurately reflect reality, and why new theories have such a hard time getting a hearing. This professor was also fond of pointing out how few scientists he knew actually thought about such questions. Scientists, in general, hate philosophers. They don’t like someone telling them what they can or cannot do. Philosophers upset their equilibrium. They hurt their self-esteem. They react in a huff, “It takes a scientist to know what science is.” Yet even feeling that way presupposes a philosophy of science. To be sure, scientists have an impressive track record like space travel, cures for infectious disease and the Human Genome Project (11/20/2005) to argue that what they are doing explains reality and produces useful results. The problem is that these known successes are fairly limited to present-day, empirically-observable and repeatable phenomena. Science Departments are not content to restrict their inquiries to these. They want control of mind, psychology of morals and religion (Robert Winston, 10/13/2005), art, history, the origin and destiny of the universe and even of alternate universes. They would push the Humanities off-campus if they could. Runaway reductionist science needs the checks and balances provided by philosophers, ethicists, historians and yes, even theologians. The question “what is science?” is not itself a scientific question. It is a question of philosophy about science. That raises serious questions about whether science can explain itself, as in the evolutionary literature that routinely expects to derive human rationality ultimately from hydrogen. These scientists fail to recognize the self-refuting nature of that line of inquiry. A self-refuting statement is false by definition. C.S. Lewis (of Narnia fame) once said, “A strict materialism refutes itself for the reason given by Professor Haldane: ‘If my mental processes are determined wholly by the motions of atoms in my brain, I have no reason to suppose that my beliefs are true… and hence I have no reason for supposing my brain to be composed of atoms.’ ” Metaphysics, therefore, must precede physics; the logical positivists, who wanted to rid science of metaphysics, were hopelessly stalled. One must have an ontology (philosophy of being) and epistemology (philosophy of knowing) before one can even do science. The extreme scientism of the 1930s short-circuited itself when enough philosophers recognized that the proposition “only things empirically verifiable are real” was not itself empirically verifiable. This episode represents one of many revolutions in philosophy of science. The early Baconian model of science was found to be incomplete; scientists began emphasizing experimentation and repeatability, but this, too, did not always lead to new fundamental insights. Scientists realized they needed to be able to make predictions. That, however, led to some pseudoscientific practices that seemed to succeed at their predictions, while other legitimate models garnered only probabilistic correlations. Karl Popper argued for the falsification criterion. Yet how much falsification is enough, and by whom? A theory is not often abandoned just because one critic claims to have falsified it, especially if a rival. Evolutionary theory itself seems to outlast numerous falsifications, whether from the fossil record, speciation, Haldane’s Dilemma or irreducible complexity. Thomas Kuhn proposed the controversial view that science had the character of a guild, with members reinforcing one another’s beliefs until a younger generation could overthrow the reigning paradigm. Carl Hempel tried to define science according to the logical form of its explanations and the class of events to be explained, but this leaves out many areas assumed to be legitimate subjects for scientific inquiry, and permits spurious explanations without valid causal content. Others argue that an explanation must be evaluated in the context of who asked the question, or that models only reflect simulations of reality, not reality itself. Philosophers of science still argue these and many more issues. In short, as J. P. Moreland (Biola) has argued, there are no demarcation criteria for science that succeed in excluding all forms of pseudoscience while simultaneously including all disciplines recognized as valid by scientists. The field permits contests at all levels among advocates of this or that subject, either wanting to gain the respectability of science, or wanting to exclude others from that respectability. Moreland argued that the primary success of the Darwinian revolution was to redefine science to exclude theology out of hand, and thus claim that all prior scientists who had been doing their work based on belief in a Creator were doing religion and not science, by definition. This explains much about the efforts by Big Science to exclude intelligent design. It’s no longer necessary to play a fair game when you have disqualified your opponent. Big Science, for example, gives approval to the methods of design inference in cryptography, forensics, archaeology and SETI (12/03/2005), but wants to exclude them by fiat from biology. “The great obstacle to the progress of our understanding is always complacency,” said Robinson. “A fundamentalist ‘scientism’ risks developing a hostility – at least an indifference – toward criticism, and thus it risks depriving itself of its own traditional sources of inspiration.” It is also unwise to ignore the role of personality in scientific disputes. Science is, after all, a human invention, performed by fallible humans. Bruce Alberts was not acting as Dr. Cool, Objective Scientist in his “wakeup call.” He displayed the same human emotions and biases to which we are all prone. Due to our finiteness, human science must always remain incomplete and tentative, its explanations judged for their utility rather than their ability to answer ultimate questions. Surely sciences exist and pseudosciences exist. We do, after all, fly space ships and treat disease. Science must be doing something right; at some levels, it must have attained a reliable correspondence with the real world. At the other extreme, nobody wants pyramidology or astrology labs competing in the university science department. Yet the boundaries are not as sharp as Alberts draws them, or else he would have to admit that much of evolutionary theory and cosmology fail the definition. Whether “supernaturalism” or “interventionism” are fair characterizations, or are illegitimate subjects for scientists to consider, become moot on closer inspection. The history of science is filled with religiously devout people who believed that understanding nature was understanding the mind of God. Newton himself was delighted that his theories helped to refute atheism. Both lecturers for The Teaching Company’s series on the history of science have stated without hesitation that the picture of a “warfare of religion vs science” is a myth. They both illustrated with many examples how belief in God and his creative design were instrumental in gaining new insights into the workings of nature. A new book by Rodney Stark makes that case as well (see The Victory of Reason: How Christianity Led to Freedom, Capitalism, and Western Success on Amazon.com and Human Events). Stark shows how the Christian commitment to rational theology were absolutely essential in the rise of science. It can safely be assumed that each of these Christian practitioners of science believed in the essence of “intelligent design.” This makes it hard to take seriously Alberts’ wakeup call that the sky is falling if intelligent design gets [back] into biology (consider Linnaeus for one example). We shortchange students by shielding them from these questions and giving them a spoon-fed, black-and-white picture of science vs. religion, natural vs. supernatural, and other shallow concepts based on false dichotomies. The history of science is one of vibrant debates and controversies. Philosophy of science has undergone many revolutions, and is still embroiled in debates between realists and anti-realists, rationalists and materialists, and scholars who actively dispute what is scientific and what is not. Alberts, even though he has been a leader in calling biologists to recognize the machine-like nature of living cells, is characterizing the debate over intelligent design emotionally and dogmatically, begging these questions in a way that shields Darwinists from critical scrutiny and competition. Is it not the Darwinians who teach that competition and struggle has produced all the complexity and beauty of life? It is only by teaching the controversy that students will escape a shallow conception of this human enterprise called science that has amassed so much moral authority in our modern world. Anything less is serfdom to the oligarchy Phillip Johnson has called the Mandarins of Science. Anything less is bound to turn Big Science’s dogmatic views on origins into an unaccountable, self-perpetuating paradigm. Daniel Robinson ended his lecture on philosophy of science by taking off on a rocket:Getting to the moon and back is largely the work of rockets, once the basic laws and the necessary engineering have been worked out. And so the question that survives, even in the wake of such a momentous achievement, is whether those laws, and that engineering, are drawn from a culture, so to speak, that is to have pride of place in assessing all of reality. The word itself “reality” presupposes a percipient. It’s not a sophist trick to ask, “Whose reality?” or, “Reality in relation to what?” The aim throughout is to understand the setting of our own lives, at once physical, social, political, and moral. And it remains to be debated whether ultimate authority in these respects is held by science.(Visited 19 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0