A team of the Income Tax Department on July 25 raided the residence and factory premises of senior Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader and legislator Hasan Mushrif in Kolhapur district in western MaharashtraAn MLA from the Kagal Assembly seat, Mr. Mushrif, a former Minister who held the Labour portfolio in the erstwhile Congress-NCP government, is considered to be a tall leader of his party in the State’s ‘sugar belt’ region.According to sources, the I-T team swooped down on Mr. Mushrif’s bungalow in Kagal at around 5.30 a.m. while simultaneous raids took place at his son’s residence in Pune and his relatives’ house in Takala in Kolhapur.Officials also conducted searches at the Sar Senapati Santaji Ghorpade Sugar Factory in Kagal which is said to be controlled by Mr. Mushrif among other places.However, authorities declined to elaborate on the reason for the raids.A number of the NCP leader’s loyalists thronged outside his house to express solidarity as news of the raids spread throughout Kagal. A robust security shield was in place as the I-T officials conducted their searches and scrutinised documents at Mr. Mushrif’s house and office.The raids coincide with the exit of another important NCP leader Sachin Ahir, who jettisoned his position as his party’s Mumbai unit chief to enter the Shiv Sena, allegedly impressed with Aditya Thackeray’s leadership.The timing of the raid on Mr. Mushrif’s home has triggered speculation that the NCP leader’s alleged ‘refusal’ to join the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) prompted the party to unleash the I-T Department on him.“Recently, at a public function in Kolhapur, newly appointed BJP State president Chandrakant Patil had made an open offer to Mr. Mushrif to ally with the BJP. But the NCP leader had snubbed Mr. Patil and instead questioned as to how, and from where, was the BJP able to secure enormous funds to ‘buy’ Congress legislators in Karnataka and destabilise the Congress-JD (S) government,” said an analyst, requesting anonymity.The raids on Mr. Mushrif’s house also come amid intense speculation of another NCP MLA, Vaibhav Pichad from Akole in Ahmednagar district, entering the BJP fold.Mr. Pichad, the son of senior NCP MLA Madhukar Pichad, is believed to have met with Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis at the latter’s home ‘Varsha’ in Mumbai on Wednesday evening.The developments take place a week after Mr. Patil had confidently claimed that several legislators from the opposition NCP and the Congress were in contact with the BJP. Mr. Patil had also said that the opposition camp would witness a spate of resignations in the coming week.
Hines Ward on the mic.Former Pittsburgh Steelers receiver Hines Ward showed his moves on the football field in arguably a Hall of Fame career and he showed his deft footwork in winning ABC’s Dancing With The Stars last year. Now, Ward takes on a new challenge: television analyst.The former Georgia Bulldog has been signed on by NBC Sports to work as an analyst for its NFL and college football coverage — a nice gig for Ward, who retired from the NFL in March after 14 years with the Steelers.The four-time Pro Bowl participant has a multi-year deal and will be a regular contributor to the NBC’s Football Night In America on Sundays and will be part of NBC Sports Network’s college football studio show on Saturdays.
Related Items:#IrwinLarocqueon, #ManchesterBombing, CARICOM Recommended for you Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp UN SG is Special Guest at Opening Ceremony for CARICOM Heads Meeting Wednesday Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppGuyana, May 23, 2017 – Georgetown –The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) strongly condemns the vicious terrorist attack perpetrated in Manchester, United Kingdom, on Monday evening. The fact that the majority of the victims were children and young people makes this vile action even more heart-rending.The compassionate and helpful reaction by the citizens of Manchester to those in distress after the carnage, exemplifies the qualities of empathy and resilience of the people of the United Kingdom.CARICOM extends its deepest sympathy to the families who lost loved ones and wishes a full and speedy recovery to the injured. The Community stands in solidarity with the Government and People of the United Kingdom as they confront this latest assault on their nation.#CARICOM#ManchesterBombing#IrwinLarocqueon Bahamas to take 15-member delegation to CARICOM meeting set in Mo’Bay, Jamaica CARICOM Inter-Sessional Meeting discussions conclude on high note
Consumer magazine advertising sales modestly increased in the first half of this year. However, the newsstand situation continues to baffle. The industry can’t seem to cap the sales leaks that have been bedeviling it the last two years. In the first half of this year sales of audited consumer magazines again disappoint—unit sales declined to 320 million—a drop 7.6 percent. Revenue declined to $1.28 billion—a fall of 6.7 percent. Industry Sales Down Nearly 25 Percent Last Two YearsThe sales difficulties began in the second half of 2008 when the lid blew off the newsstand well. In the ensuing two year period sales have precipitously fallen—unit sales down 22.3 percent and revenue off 19.9 percent. The industry is now selling nearly 25 percent less copies than it did just a few years ago. This is a decline of serious proportions and, not surprisingly, it’s changing how magazines are distributed and sold. Many of the reasons for the newsstands sale slide are well known—a recessionary economy, the influence of the Internet and less store visits. The sales difficulties have also been exacerbated by the record number of discontinued titles and a dramatic slowing in the number of new title launches. The number of audited consumer magazines sold on the newsstand dropped from a high of about 600 titles in the year 2000 to roughly 430 in the first half of this year. Wholesaler AdjustmentsA less well-known reason for the sales decline involves changes made by the industry’s major wholesalers.A little background may help in understanding what’s going on here. The newsstand has always been a hit-driven business with strong selling titles (top 25 publications) providing most of the profit for wholesalers. The lesser titles (thousands of them) were economically enabled, to some extent, by the better selling publications. For wholesalers the need to carry a full range of titles was a competitive necessity, but it also promulgated many of the inefficiencies that the business has become known for. Until a year ago wholesalers were trapped in a very difficult situation that involved heavy competitive bidding for major chain retail accounts. However, a little over a year ago Anderson News, one of four major wholesalers at the time, departed the business. Their departure eased some of the competitive pressure and freed the three remaining major wholesalers to rethink their distribution plans as well as the number of titles they carry and the number of small retailers they service. The results of these changes are altering sales and product preferences. Wholesaler Changes Favor Checkout Over Mainline TitlesIt’s important to note that the three major wholesaler groups distribute approximately 80 percent of the publications sold on the newsstand. But they are no longer omni present suppliers for every retailer in their territories. In recent years they have become specialists in distributing to major retail chains and transportation terminals. The significance of this is that wholesalers have become even more oriented toward checkout titles (the titles favored by chain retailers) and less concerned with mainline publications. This change in focus is showing up in product preference. The results are most apparent in the revised sales patterns of checkout and mainline titles. Relatively speaking it reveals that checkout title sales are rising and mainline publication sales are sinking. 1. Checkout (68 titles) Vs Mainline—Checkout unit sales down 5.3 percent and revenue off 4.4 percent. By comparison mainline sales—units down 15.6 percent and revenue off 12.5 percent. The sales decline was three times steeper for mainline titles.2. Checkout Sales Dominate—They accounted for 79.8 percent of unit sales and 72.9 percent of revenue in the 1st half of 2010.3. Checkout/Mainline Sales Last Two Years—Checkout—unit sales down 18.9 percent and revenue down 14.8 percent. Mainline units sales down 33.7 percent and revenue off 30.9 percent. Mainline sales are declining at twice the rate of checkout sales. Mainline titles are rapidly losing their newsstand influence.Influence of the Top Ten TitlesThe newsstand, however, remains a hit driven market—witness the sales of the top ten titles, ranked by 1st half revenue (1st half unit sales changes in parenthesis)—People (-2.3), US (-7.7), In Touch (3.4), Woman’s World (6.9), Star (-11.6), National Enquirer (-8.2), Cosmopolitan (1.6), OK! (-9.5), Life & Style (-10.1) and Globe (-10.8). Overall their unit sales were down 3.3 percent and revenue declined 3.2 percent. By way of contrast the sales of all other audited publications (besides the top 10) fell at a very steep rate – unit sales down 11.8 percent and revenue off 9.4 percent. For first time the top ten titles accounted for more than 50 percent (51.3) of unit sales for all audited consumer magazines.The pervasive impact of the top ten titles should help publishers, especially those with mainline titles; understand why wholesaler attention is focused squarely on their best selling publications. Final ThoughtsA cap for the sales leak, which has reduced sales by nearly 25 percent, is probably nearly in place—we hope it holds. But the sales slide has left permanent product preference changes in its wake. If you’re a publisher of checkout titles this is good news, but for mainline publishers the newsstand world has gotten a lot less friendly. Mainline title publishers would be wise to be searching for more distribution alternatives because major wholesalers are more likely to be focused on their hit driven checkout titles.
Share your voice Reimagining the cockpit Ten years ago, CES’ automotive hall was all about speakers and stereos, but 2019 sees automakers and media providers completely reimagining what entertainment in car looks like. Audi collaborated with Disney on a project called Holoride, a VR experience for passengers that brings games and movies along for the ride. Meanwhile, Intel and WB’s AR cockpit is an augmented reality autonomous car experience that takes riders on a virtual tour of Batman’s Gotham City. Entertainment might get a whole lot more immersive in future autonomous vehicles. Intel Speaking of augmented reality, suppliers like WayRay and Valeo are busy working on ways to bring AR tech to the cars of today. Valeo’s XtraVue invisible towing system uses cameras to make a towed trailer appear transparent when viewed through an in-car display. Meanwhile, WayRay’s massive head-up display tech enables AR data to be overlaid on to a vehicle’s windshield. A different side of autonomous tech The lion’s share of CES 2019’s car-related news fell to autonomous and semiautonomous technologies that aim to make tomorrow’s vehicles safer. The flashiest was BMW’s self-riding motorbike, which was able to steer itself around the convention center’s lot without falling over. We also saw how autonomy will affect the trucking and logistics industries. Freightliner showed off a Level 2 semiautonomous trailer cab that brings many of the modern advanced driver aid features from passenger cars to semi trucks. 0 CES 2019 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better Tags 2:25 Post a comment 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value The concepts of tomorrow Forward-looking CES had no shortage of interesting concept cars, a few of which we’ve already seen before. Mercedes-Benz’s Vision Urbanetic concept made its North American debut on the Las Vegas Strip. Roadshow was there to take it for a spin — or rather, be taken for a spin in this autonomous car. Uber talked quite a bit about its plans for flying taxis at its Elevate conference series in 2018. CES 2019 gave many their first in-person look at what to expect from that with the Bell Nexus flying taxi concept. It looks a bit like a big ol’ drone with seating for four passengers and a pilot and it could be taking to the air for test flights in early 2020. I’ve saved the “Where we’re going, we don’t need roads” reference for perhaps the weirdest concept at the show. Hyundai’s Elevate concept is an electric emergency response vehicle with legs between its body and wheels. Able to transition between driving and walking modes, it’s a crazy future ambulance that can scramble over rocky terrain like some kind of lizard car. CES 2019: See all of CNET’s coverage of the year’s biggest tech show. TVs of CES: Huge 8K screens and insane roll-up OLEDs. 10 life-changing things I learned at CES 2019 At a smaller scale, startup Udelv debuted its second-generation autonomous delivery truck. The Udelv Newton has a longer range and is more flexible than the Udelv’s previous truck and will be hitting the road this year as part of pilot delivery programs with Walmart in Arizona and XL Parts in Texas. And that’s just scratching the surface. There’s so much more to discover in our coverage of CES 2019 and more to come as we wrap up our coverage of the big show and roll straight into the Detroit Auto Show next week. BMW’s riderless, self-driving motorcycle goes for a spin… 56 Photos Though many come for the insane TV tech, smart appliances and cute robots, CES 2019 is also the first major car show of the year. Transportation and mobility steals a little bit more of the show every year with more vehicle debuts, more crazy concepts and more tech finding its way into the cars. To bring you up to speed, here’s a quick roundup of the best automotive news we’ve seen here in Las Vegas. New vehicle debuts CES saw the debut of the long-awaited, long-range version of Nissan’s Leaf EV. The 2019 Leaf E+ tweaks the world’s best-selling electric car formula with a larger battery pack that bumps its range to about 226 miles, a significant boost over the current model. Meanwhile, Mercedes-Benz debuted its coupe-y, swoopy 2020 CLA-Class in Las Vegas this week. The compact sedan is packed with style, but bursting at the seams with tech, including Benz’s MBUX connected infotainment system and a healthy dose of driver aid technologies. (A bit of a power bump over the A-Class doesn’t hurt, either.) Byton Electric car startup Byton only debuted part of the production version of its M-Byte electric SUV, but it’s arguably the most exciting and contentious part. The M-Byte production cockpit features a massive 48-inch screen — that’s as large as seven iPads — and a touchscreen in the center of the steering wheel. We expect to see the rest of the car later this year. CES 2019: We take a ride in the Mercedes-Benz Vision… Now playing: Watch this: 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous 1:30 All the cool car stuff at CES 2019 11 Photos Now playing: Watch this: More From Roadshow Auto Tech Concept Cars Intel Mercedes-Benz Nissan Self-driving cars
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COPY LINKAD Loading … In an unexpected turn of events, Microsoft and Sony announced on Thursday that they will be working collaboratively for the development of cloud services and more. The two tech giants have come together after a gruelling 10-year old rivalry to develop the future. This not only marks the beginning of an unexpected (but secretly wished for) venture but also proves that when needed, even fierce rivals are willing to come together and collaborate for a better tomorrow.The partnershipAs per their agreement, “the two companies will explore joint development of future cloud solutions in Microsoft Azure to support their respective games and content-streaming services.” Thus, it is expected that Microsoft Azure will play a key role in the partnership.Kenichiro Yoshida, the president and CEO of Sony said, “For many years, Microsoft has been a key business partner for us, though of course, the two companies have also been competing in some areas. I believe that our joint development of future cloud solutions will contribute greatly to the advancement of interactive content.”He also mentioned the collaboration of the two companies in the areas of semiconductors and AI, hopeful that a new value for society will be created by “leveraging each company’s cutting-edge technology in a mutually complementary way.” This announcement comes barely a month away from the world’s biggest gaming conference, E3. Kenichiro Yoshida, President and CEO, Sony Corporation (left), and Satya Nadella, CEO, MicrosoftMicrosoftOf course, here rises the question of the level of advancement the new alliance can bring into the world. We have seen some spectacular technology being developed by both companies over the years. Microsoft has been developing innovative consumer-level products for the world, including the mixed-reality-based HoloLens.Sony gave us the PlayStation VR, which enabled users to experience a whole new level of immersion. Their upcoming console is also touted to have top-of-the-line specs with an SSD for cutting loading times, ray-tracing abilities and 3D audio support.Microsoft did not get daunted by these announcements, promising that the upcoming Xbox will be more powerful than Sony’s console. This spat between the giants is another reason to think about possible ulterior motives behind this partnership.What does this mean for consumers?It is tempting to think about the future of this partnership: Has the age-old rivalry really ended? Will we be able to see cross-platform gaming across all titles?We have seen how Microsoft has been trying to change the way games are played. ‘Play Anywhere’ allows certain Xbox games to be played on the PC by cloud-saving the save states. Sony came into the industry earlier with PlayStation Now, but they lack the infrastructure that Microsoft has been developing. Both these services are distinct, yet with this new collaboration, it seems possible that the two companies can consider bringing more than just cross-platform play into the picture. Microsoft – Sony join handsReutersMicrosoft’s CEO, Satya Nadella said, “Sony has always been a leader in both entertainment and technology, and the collaboration we announced today builds on this history of innovation.”However, it isn’t advisable to jump to conclusions. Kyle Orland from Ars Technica believes that this may be a ‘keep your enemies closer’ scenario where both companies have their own interests at heart – Sony wants to use Microsoft’s advanced cloud technology, while Microsoft wants to squeeze that creative juice out of their new allies.Theorising aside, we can break down facts about the industry’s plans. Google has announced its own streaming service, Stadia, which seemed a very exciting technology during the demos. Moreover, reports suggest that Amazon may be developing its own cloud-based streaming service to add to the competition. This strengthens the possibility of obsolescence of gaming consoles by replacing them with streaming boxes.Is this the endgame for consoles?Gaming consoles may not become obsolete, because, for one, both Microsoft and Sony are hard at work with their new consoles (which already have been confirmed to have high-end CPUs and GPUs). At the same time, we have reason to believe that consoles meant specifically for gaming may be replaced by consoles which specialise in streaming, changing the way people game altogether. The logo of Sony Corp’s PlayStation is seen next to a woman at its booth during the Tokyo Game Show 2014 in Makuhari, east of Tokyo September 18, 2014.REUTERS/Yuya ShinoStreaming consoles are probably going to be a big thing, with Microsoft already having announced one console without support for physical media. If you’re wondering what the difference would be, these consoles will have high-end network cards and high RAM capacity to support the game as they stream the environment.It would be nice to see connectivity to multiple screens over a wireless network, but that is just wishful thinking. It is highly likely that companies will offer some sort of subscription for the gaming service, which will also be tiered according to genre or publisher.That change, however, is a thing of a future that is pretty far away. Most existing gamers would prefer having a quality, seamless experience of a dedicated gaming device that streaming a video of a game simply cannot replicate. The prospect of playing Forza and The Last of Us on a cheap streaming box or phone seems enticing, yet impure. Sure, freedom to game is important, but playing The Witcher 3 on a 6-inch phone will undoubtedly take away from the experience.Choppy frames, input lag and low-resolution streaming can be major problems for the next generation. However, as is the thing with technology, these problems will soon be overcome as newer infrastructure rolls in. With mixed reality, cloud gaming, and the ever-improving infrastructure, there may be a day when all games will be available for any screen at any time at low-priced subscriptions.This alliance creates tension for some in the community and opens exciting prospects for others. Developers and consumers alike can look forward to technology that will be more accessible than ever and allow for even greater levels of immersion. Microsofts mixed reality capture studios let people make their own holograms Close
Copyright 2013 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Phys.org. “Since GR is very accurate in the laboratory and the solar system (regions in which the density is much higher than the cosmic mean), any fifth force must be ‘screened’ at high densities. The symmetron mechanism is one way to screen fifth forces.”In theory, a symmetron field will mediate a fifth force when its symmetry is broken, which requires a low-density vacuum. In this broken-symmetry phase, the symmetron couples to matter with a certain matter coupling energy. Here, Upadhye investigated the scenario where the matter coupling energy is 1 TeV and the symmetron mass is 10-3 eV. Then he solved the symmetron equations of motion to estimate constraints on the symmetron. Mathematicians offer unified theory of dark matter, dark energy, altering Einstein field equations This symmetron field regime, where the matter coupling energy is 1 TeV, is not only of interest due to its potential to be tested. This energy is also possibly associated with physics beyond the standard model. If this is true, experiments may reveal new effects that indicate new physics. One such experiment is the Eöt-Wash torsion pendulum experiment being carried out by scientists at the University of Washington in Seattle. Upadhye’s calculations allowed him to predict the torque signal that the symmetron would produce in an Eöt-Wash experiment.”It turns out that Eöt-Wash just happens to probe an interesting range of parameters because they have targeted the experiment at the right range of distances,” he said. “Fifth force screening mechanisms are not perfect, so there are residual fifth forces which can be detected by sufficiently sensitive experiments probing the right distances. My paper approximated these residual fifth forces and showed that Eöt-Wash excludes a substantial portion of them.”In this experiment, the presence of a fifth force would cause a metal disk to rotate in such a way as to align with a second metal disk.”Eöt-Wash uses a pair of metal disks with the same pattern of holes in each one,” Upadhye said. “The upper disk is suspended from a wire, allowing it to rotate freely, while the lower disk is rotated at a uniform rate. Fifth forces would cause the upper disk to rotate so as to align its pattern of holes with that on the lower disk. So, by looking for small torques on the upper disk leading to torsional oscillation, Eöt-Wash can search for fifth forces. The experiment can be repeated over a range of separations between upper and lower disks, allowing them to determine the rate at which fifth forces decrease with distance. Since this experiment has been designed to study distances as low as 50 microns, it is very useful for testing fifth forces due to dark energy.”Last December, Upadhye visited the Eöt-Wash group, and the researchers were very interested in testing new dark energy theories. Currently they are designing a new torsion pendulum experiment which should be substantially more sensitive to fifth forces. Upadhye plans to work further on his calculations to allow for more accurate testing.”An approximate treatment such as that in my symmetrons paper is useful for forecasting constraints, but in order to analyze the real data from the upcoming Eöt-Wash experiment, I plan to do more accurate computations of these fifth forces,” Upadhye said. “Several years ago I did such a computation for chameleon fifth forces. I plan to speed up that calculation as well as extend it to symmetron fifth forces. Using the extensive computational resources available here at Argonne, I will analyze Eöt-Wash data and test these dark energy theories.” The Eöt-Wash experiment may test for Upadhye’s predicted torque signal due to the symmetron field. A fifth force could be measured in the submillimeter distance between the two disks. (Left) An illustration of an older model and (right) a photo of a newer instrument. Credit: The Eöt-Wash Group at the University of Washington (Phys.org)—A field that permeates the universe and gives rise to a new force, or “fifth force,” between massive objects may be a candidate for dark energy and an explanation for why the expansion of the universe is accelerating. This field, called the symmetron field, is so named because it has a symmetry in regions of high density, while in regions of low density, such as a vacuum, the symmetry is broken and the field mediates the new force. More information: Amol Upadhye. “Symmetron Dark Energy in Laboratory Experiments.” PRL 110, 031301 (2013). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.031301 Citation: Can dark energy be explained by symmetrons? (2013, January 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-01-dark-energy-symmetrons.html Explore further Estimated constraints on symmetron dark energy, a new model in which fifth forces between massive objects play a role in accelerating the universe’s expansion. Credit: Upadhye. ©2012 American Physical Society Currently, the symmetron concept is purely theoretical. But in a new study, physicist Amol Upadhye at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, has calculated that a previously unexplored symmetron regime near the dark energy scale will give rise to a fifth force at submillimeter distances. He proposes that short-range gravity experiments can search for the fifth force at these distances and possibly reveal if dark energy is in fact a symmetron field.”Much of my work has focused on chameleon dark energy theories, and I really only started thinking about symmetrons last summer,” Upadhye told Phys.org. “Modern experimental techniques and technologies have advanced enough to search for new physics at distances of interest for dark energy theories.”As Upadhye explained, a symmetron field could fulfill the role of dark energy by acting as a negative pressure.”Dark energy in general can be described by a constant (or slowly varying) vacuum energy density, such as that due to a field whose potential is minimized at a small, positive value,” he said. “In the presence of such an energy density, Einstein’s equation of General Relativity (GR) predicts that the universe will expand at an accelerating rate. In GR, pressure gravitates; positive pressures contribute to the decelerating expansion of the universe. Dark energy acts as a negative pressure which leads to an accelerating expansion.”The simplest model of a dark energy is Einstein’s cosmological constant, a constant vacuum energy density which explains all available data. The big question in cosmology is whether or not the dark energy is just a cosmological constant. Alternative theories predict that the vacuum energy density evolves with time, or that new (‘fifth’) forces exist between known particles. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Citation: Researcher figures out how sharks manage to act like math geniuses (2014, September 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-09-figures-sharks-math-geniuses.html (Phys.org) —Bioresearcher Andy Reynolds with Rothamsted Research in the U.K., believes he has solved the mystery of how sharks act like math geniuses—they simply turn away from turbulence, he reports in his paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. His research effort and paper came in response to prior research that showed sharks trap prey using what’s known as Lévy flight—a mathematical description of an optimal way of moving from one position to another using both long and short hops. Great white shark at Isla Guadalupe, Mexico, August 2006. Credit: Terry Goss/Wikipedia By most simple measures, sharks are not the smartest swimmers in the sea, yet, they have somehow managed to learn to use Lévy flight when chasing prey, optimizing energy use in the process. So, how do they do it? Reynolds claims its more reaction than thought and believes his computer simulations prove it. Normally responsible for investigating or developing models of insect movement patterns over terrain, Reynolds in this case, turned his attention to the way sharks and some other sea creatures move through their environment when chasing prey. After learning that many of them use Lévy flight, he sought to find out why.Lévy flight actually makes sense for predators, he found, it’s based on movements that can be used to gain the most amount of resources for the least amount of effort. Reynolds suspected sharks wind up using it due to turbulence in the water. Turbulence, he notes, is not conducive to efficient swimming. He turned to a part of turbulence theory which suggests that Lévy flights can arise naturally if a chaser (the shark) turns away from the direction of unusually strong turbulence. He took what he’d worked out with his math calculations and translated it to a computer model of shark movement. When run, the simulation showed the theories matched perfectly with real world observations. Sharks, it seems, are not great thinkers, instead, they merely appear to be so by simply avoiding messy turbulence.Reynolds’ results show that seemingly intelligent behavior in other animals may not be what it appears, and thus researchers and others observing such behaviors should consider the possibility that other factors may be at play. © 2014 Phys.org Jellyfish food-finding strategy found to be more complex than thought This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Lévy flight movement patterns in marine predators may derive from turbulence cues, Proc. R. Soc. A 8 November 2014 vol. 470 no. 2171 20140408, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2014.0408 AbstractThe Lévy-flight foraging hypothesis states that because Lévy flights can optimize search efficiencies, natural selection should have led to adaptations for Lévy flight foraging. Some of the strongest evidence for this hypothesis has come from telemetry data for sharks, bony fish, sea turtles and penguins. Here, I show that the programming for these Lévy movement patterns does not need to be very sophisticated or clever on the predator’s part, as these movement patterns would arise naturally if the predators change their direction of travel only after encountering patches of relatively strong turbulence (a seemingly natural response to buffeting). This is established with the aid of kinematic simulations of three-dimensional turbulence. Lévy flights movement patterns are predicted to arise in all but the most quiescent of oceanic waters.